This step by step tutorial is everything you need to install MySQL 5.1 (from source) on a virgin FreeBSD 4.x – 7.x machine.
Step 1: Install wget
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cd /usr/ports/ftp/wget make make install
Step 2: Download MySQL 5.1 source code
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mkdir /usr/tmp cd /usr/tmp wget "http://dev.mysql.com/get/Downloads/MySQL-5.1/mysql-5.1.24-rc.tar.gz/from/http://mysql.he.net/" tar xvzf mysql-5.1.24-rc.tar.gz
Step 3: Create mysql user
Follow the prompts to create a mysql user and mysql group with a default directory of /usr/local/mysql
Step 4: Compile and Install MySQL with InnoDB support
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cd /usr/tmp/mysql-5.1.24-rc ./configure --with-innodb make all make install
Step 5: Install default MySQL tables
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cd /usr/local/bin ./mysql_install_db cd /usr/local chown -R mysql:mysql var
Step 6: Startup MySQL and connect to it
/usr/local/bin/mysqld_safe & /usr/local/bin/mysql
Step 7: Set MySQL to start automatically when the machine reboots
Save the file below under /usr/local/etc/rc.d and call it mysqlstart.sh
Mark it as an executable
chmod 755 /usr/local/etc/rc.d/mysqlstart.sh
Step 8: Customizations
The following steps are optional.
By this point you should have MySQL installed and running on your new FreeBSD machine.
The customizations below are things that we do here at SoftwareProjects and are designed to get the most juice out of MySQL 5.1 in our environment.
All of our MySQL database machines run on FreeBSD 6/7 with a minimum of 4GB memory.
Shutdown the MySQL database
Move the data directory to /usr/local/mysql/data
mv /usr/local/var /usr/local/mysql/data
Save our custom MySQL configuration file under /etc/my.cnf
Note: Be sure to assign a unique server-id and note the auto-increment field – this is useful for master/master setups.
Step 9: Lift process size restrictions
FreeBSD limits process max size in memory to 512MB. We’re going to want to use more for MySQL.
To lift FreeBSD process size restrictions, we have to update /boot/loader.conf with:
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sl_aacu_load="YES" kern.maxdsiz="2073741824" # 2GB kern.dfldsiz="2073741824" # 2GB #kern.maxssiz="536870912" # 512MB
And then reboot the machine
Step 10: Populate database with data
Typically when we install a new database server, we want to populate it with data from another database.
The absolute easiest way to populate a secondary MySQL database machine with data from another MySQL database, is by using a script called InnoDBBackup by the makers of InnoDB.
Install both ibbackup and the Perl innobackup script on the master database machine (the one you are looking to transfer data from)
create a backup of the database (the great thing about this is you never have to take the database down):
./innobackup /etc/my.cnf /usr/local/mysql/databackup
Once the backup completes, transfer all the data over from the master to this new machine we are setting up –
On the new machine we are setting up, create a new directory to hold the backup:
mkdir /usr/local/mysql/databackup chmod a+rw /usr/local/mysql/databackup
On the master machine, issue this tar command:
tar -czpf - /usr/local/mysql/databackup --exclude mysql | ssh -lUSERNAME NEWHOST.COM tar -xzpf - -C /usr/local/mysql/databackup
Once the tar is done, copy ibbackup and innobackup to the destination machine under /usr/tmp and run these two commands:
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./innobackup --apply-log /etc/my.cnf /usr/local/mysql/databackup/2008-05-02_09-34-03/backup-my.cnf ./innobackup --copy-back /etc/my.cnf /usr/local/mysql/databackup/2008-05-02_09-34-03/backup-my.cnf Replace the 2008-05-02... with the name of your backup folder
Important: If you have a lot of databases, you may get “Too many open files” EMFILE error 24.
To fix this, you need to increase the number of file descriptors.
Update your /etc/sysctl.conf with the settings below and reboot the machine before retrying:
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kern.maxfiles=65535 kern.maxfilesperproc=56384 kern.maxproc=50000 vfs.vmiodirenable=1 net.inet.tcp.msl=2000 net.inet.tcp.rfc1323=1 net.inet.tcp.delayed_ack=0 net.inet.tcp.restrict_rst=1 kern.ipc.maxsockbuf=2097152 kern.ipc.somaxconn=4096 kern.ipc.maxsockets=52328 net.inet.ip.portrange.first=20000 net.inet.ip.portrange.last=65535 net.inet.ip.portrange.hifirst=20000 net.inet.ip.portrange.hilast=65535